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Smartphones are mobile personal computers that use advanced mobile operating systems that allow mobile, handheld usage. A smartphone is much smaller than a tablet making it easy to fit one in a pocket. Not only can a smartphone make voice calls it can also send and receive text messages. Smartphones have digital personal assistants, event calendars, media players, video games, GPS navigation, and the ability to take digital photos and videos. A smartphone can also access the internet by either connecting to Wi-Fi or using cellular data. The user may also download many helpful apps to a smartphone.
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Most computers are digital computers which use a specific language to communicate within itself in order to process information. If there are programs running in the background or a person is typing up a word document for example, the computer needs to be able to interpret the data that is being put into it by the human as well as communicate to working components within itself. This language that digital computers use is called binary code and is a very basic form of language composed of only two figures; 1 and 0. Whereas the English language is composed of 26 figures which we commonly call the alphabet, computers use a language composed of only two figures, hence its name "binary code". These 1's and 0's are referred to as "bits" - which are known as the smallest unit of data that a binary computer can recognize. They are found through every action, memory, storage, or computation that is done through a computer, such as creating a document, opening a web browser, or downloading media. In order to comply with more actions memory or storage, bits must compound together to form a larger unit referred to as "bytes".
Bytes are commonly used when referring to the size of the information being provided. For example, a song that is downloaded may contain several kilobytes or perhaps even a few megabytes if it is a whole c.d. and not just a single track. Likewise, pictures and all other documents in general are stored on the computer based on their size or amount of bytes they contain. The amount of information that can be stored onto a computer is also shown or displayed in bytes as is the amount left on a computer after certain programs or documents have been stored. Since bytes can be extremely long, we have come up with prefixes that signify how large they are. These prefixes increase by three units of ten so that a Kilobyte represents around 1,000 bytes, a Megabyte represents around one million bytes (1,000,000 bytes), a Gigabyte represents around one billion bytes (1,000,000,000 bytes), etc. Computers components have become so small that we can now store larger and larger amounts of data bytes in the same size computers resulting in the use of other larger prefixes such as Tera, Peta, Exa, Zetta, and Yotta. Below is a chart outlining the name of the prefix used and powers of ten they symbolize.
Audio Data is very similar to graphics data in that it is understood in pieces. Instead of using pixels, however, audio data uses samples. Audio data is usually recorded with an input device such as a microphone or a MIDI controller. Samples are then taken from the recording thousands of times every second and when they are played back in the same order, they create the original audio file. Because there are so many samples within each sound file, files are often compressed into formats such as MP3 or MP4 so that they take up less storage space. This makes them easier to download, send over the internet, or even store on your MP3 player.
Video data is also similar to graphic and audio data, but instead of using pixels or samples, video data is recorded with the use of frames. Frames are still images that are taken numerous times per second and that when played simultaneously, create a video (most films are recorded using twenty-four frames per second). Similar to audio data, because video data contains so much information, the files can be compressed, making it possible for full length movies containing thousands of frames to be stored on optical discs.
Memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips and is used to store data and programs on a temporary or permanent basis. There are two main types of memory storage which are random- access memory (RAM) and read-only memory (ROM). Inside the system unit, ROM is attached to the motherboard.Random-access memory can read data from RAM and write data into RAM in the same amount of time. RAM capacity is measured in bytes. It is volatile which means that it loses the information/data stored on it when the power is turned off. In order to retrieve an important file at a later date, one needs to store it on a separate, non-volatile, storage medium (such as a flash drive or hard-drive) so that, even though the information is erased from RAM, it is stored elsewhere. RAM has different slots where it stores data and keeps track of addresses. Read-only memory cannot be written to and is non-volatile which means it keeps its contents regardless of whether the power is turned off or not. Flash memory (solid-state) is starting to replace ROM. It is also a non-volatile memory chip that is used for storage on devices, like mobile phones, tablets, digital cameras, etc. This type of memory can often be found in the form of flash drives, SD cards, and Solid-State hard drives. The reason for this is so that the data can be quickly updated over time while taking up a smaller amount of physical space in comparison to its precursors. Flash memory is also more resistant to outside forces, such as electro-magnetic fields or shock, than other memory alternatives such as traditional hard-drives.
Since solid-state drives (SSDs) are hard drives that use flash memory technology instead of hard disk platters they have no moving parts. They also no longer make noise, consume less power thus generating less heat, and are much faster than hard drives. Since they are much faster than hard drives, the performance of the computer would also be improved. Running programs, opening files, saving things to the disk, even browsing the web will be much faster. Also with a mechanical hard drive, physical heads have to move around to read data from the disk while in a solid-state drive data can be read and written on any location thus there is no penalty in performance. Not only are solid-state drives faster but they have also become less expensive that upgrading to them is much more affordable and reasonable. Even further, installing solid-state drives is not too difficult or complex. It is basically the same as installing regular hard drives. Also if the decision of upgrading to solid-state drives seems a little too final, it is possible to just add a solid-state drive alongside the hard drive. Thus not only having more space, but also having the ability to keep the old mechanical drive.
Temporary files (e.g. from web browsers and installation programs) can take up valuable storage space if they are not removed after extended periods of times. Also, users should be aware of the programs they are installing and decide which specific programs are to run at startup. Too many programs can slow down the initial startup time of the computer because it must launch program after program. Only those programs that are necessary should be included, and to check for this, click Start (in the lower-left Windows icon) and enter the command msconfig in the search tab. This will open the System Configuration window. Programs that run at startup are listed under the Startup tab. Here the user can enable or disable programs, which can affect startup time.
Another important factor in determining system performance is the corruption of system files by malware. Viruses, worms, trojans, spyware, and other forms of malware can infect a system by various means, so it is important for the user to be aware and defensive. Anti-virus programs and other security software provide protection from malware, so it is recommended that a user has some sort of program installed and regularly scans the system for any traces.
9) Before a computer can execute any program instruction, such as requesting input from the user, moving a file from one storage device to another, or opening a new window on the screen, it must convert the instruction into a binary code known as ____________.
As the demand for technology and technology itself continues to excel throughout history, so does user's wants and needs. The user's lifestyle pertaining to computers may revolve around publishing documents, creating presentations, media management, networking on the internet, and much more. In correlation with their wants and needs, there's the need to be able to have access to storage of the data being produced. Storage is also referred to as 'memory', as it can be any type of hardware that's functionality includes, storing data, maintaining downloaded files along with extracting files as well. This can be performed through both permanent and temporary storage along with being internal to a device, or external.
Hard drives are used as primary storage units to store most data and computer programs to operate on a computer. The two types of hard drives available for purchase are: internal hard drives, and external hard drives. There are many things to consider if you are a consumer seeking these storage devices. The internal hard drive, which can be included in the computer before purchase, is directly connected to the motherboard, (A.K.A the brain of the computer), as well as other components inside the tower or casing of the computer/laptop. An external hard drive is commonly used among users who are either portably transporting data/programs from device to device, or seeking extra storage space for their files. External hard drives can be very small, and convenient for traveling with data. There are multiple different options to explore while considering a hard drive: speed, consistency, and durability. The types of hard drives offered include either of the following: magnetic storage, optical storage, and electrons which use flash memory media. 041b061a72